As Russian emigrants Paris conquered (24 photos)
Emigration is always a tragedy, but not always a failure. Marriage is not always love and passion, but certainly – cooperation. I think it’s quite possible to talk about these two people in these words. They were called: his – Felix, and her – Irina.
He & # 8212; a descendant of the old family, who started from the Nogai murz, handsome, a graduate of Oxford, heir to the fabulous state; they used to say that the Yusupovs were richer than the Romanovs.
She is a young, dazzling beauty, belonging to the reigning house; Granddaughter and favorite dowager empress.
This couple had everything for an undreamed-out long happy life.
Then & # 8212; revolution, the collapse of the familiar world, the loss of everything dear to them, flight, emigration. When in 1919 the Yusupov sailed from the Crimea on the battleship “Marlboro”, in Russia they had: 5 palaces and 14 apartment houses, 30 estates and estates throughout the country, sugar, meat and brick factories, anthracite mines and much more.
All had to give up.
After Felix bought passports and visas for several diamonds, the Yusupovs purchased a house in the Bois de Boulogne and settled in Paris.
Ahead lay a whole life.
I think they were scared. Maybe the princess was crying. He must have been silent. What could he say to her?
More than 300 thousand Russian emigrants gathered in France. Those who were able to derive some values, like the Yusupovs, sold them for a pittance, because because of the large supply, prices have fallen dramatically.
Representatives of aristocratic families almost did not starve. After all, they could not do anything. In the mansion in the Bois de Boulogne, the princess herself washed and darned the linen. Means were not. What were they going to do ?? They created their own Fashion House.
France, the capital of fashion, has been filled with women, who have been taught beautiful, brilliantly educated, knowing, besides the compulsory French, several other languages with impeccable manners. Since childhood they have dressed in the best fashion houses in Europe, the concept of “taste” was decisive for them; they would like to return to the world of the elegant, where they felt themselves to be their designers (at that time there was no such word …), models, even embroiderers or seamstresses.
About them wrote the Paris magazine “Illustrated Russia” on January 22, 1932: “And here in this city a timid step entered the Russian emigrant: at one time her mother and grandmother dressed at Worth and Poire, and this young Russian woman had just escaped from the hell of the revolution and civil war! Until recently, she served as a nurse of mercy on the front at Denikin’s and in English hospitals in Constantinople. She entered the capital of female elegance and knocked on the doors of the luxurious maison de haute couture. And the massive doors in front of her opened, and she conquered all the hearts! ”
It was an adventure, heavily mixed with desperation and pride. In 1924, at rue Obligado in Paris, in the small apartment of the Russian artist, the first dresses “IrFe” were created; (Irina / Felix). In the work on the collection participated prince Nikita Romanov, Maria Vorontsova-Dashkova, Princess Elena Trubetskaya. On the floor crawled, laying out sketches drawn on old wallpaper, Princess Obolensky – Salomiya and Nina.
The debut of the fashion house & quot; IrFe & quot; was simple and brilliant: Irina, without invitation, brought her aristocratic models to a fashion show at the Ritz Hotel in Paris on Vendome Square.
They made a real sensation. The princess Yusupova herself, the bearer of expensive, subtle, slightly tragic beauty, also came out to the public.
Here it is in the models of its Fashion House.
In popular magazines there were enthusiastic responses: “Originality, refined taste, thoroughness of work and artistic vision of flowers immediately put this modest studio in the rank of large fashion houses.”
(Princess Irina Obolenskaya in the dress of the house IrFe and modern reconstruction of the dress)
Take-off of the fashion house & quot; IrFe & quot; was impetuous.
The Yusupovs opened three more branches: in Tuk – a popular resort in Normandy, London and Berlin.
Secular ladies were delighted. “The clients were of all nationalities. Came from curiosity and exotic. One of them asked for tea from the samovar. The other, an American, wanted to see the “prince”, who, according to rumors, had phosphorescent eyes, like a predator “# 8212; recalled in his memoirs Felix Yusupov.
In 1926, & quot; IrFe & quot; the first of the Russian houses released his own perfume line, represented by three flavors: for blondes, brunettes and redheads. The authors of the fragrance were Felix and Irina. The design of the perfume advertising poster “IrFe”, depicting a bottle of rectangular shape with a faceted black cap, was created by Princess Margarita of Greece.
The undoubted success of the House “IrFe & quot; allowed Yusupov to develop new areas of activity: the Yusupov porcelain store was opened, and the prince himself took part in the design of three Parisian restaurants.
Ideas were new, taste & # 8212; flawless, brightness & # 8212; bewitching, but & # 8212; success would be unthinkable without Russian models. It was they who astonished the imagination of the public “# 8212; she had never seen anything like it before. By the way, did not see after & # 8230;
This is Princess Natalia Paley, the daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich. The story of his love for a woman of a lower class, rejection of a family, flight and a wedding at a half-station deserves a separate story. I will only say that all three of their children turned out to be beautiful with that light beauty, such as children born, conceived and born in great love.
Princess Elena Trubetskaya.
Viscountess Zhenya d & # 8217; Kasteks & # 8212; Gorlenko.
Russian models possessed beautiful upbringing, beauty, manners, and & # 8212; a loud title that drove the Parisians crazy.
Princess Mary Eristov, nee Shervashidze.
A Parisian habitual image of the salon dummy & quot; & # 8212; a pretty young lady of a small mind, prosperity and descent crumbled to dust. The living rooms of the fashion houses showed the goddess.
The characters of many “# 8212; and as a consequence, fate & # 8212; could be the plot of the novel. The leading mannequin of the famous Russian House of Fashion “Iteb”, founded by the former maid of honor of the Empress, was Sofya Nosovich, famous for her fights with the Bolsheviks in the White Army. She was sentenced to be shot, but by a miracle she escaped and got to Paris. During the period of the Nazi occupation, she participated in the Resistance, she was captured, tortured and she did not betray anyone; later was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.
Princess Nadezhda Scherbatova.
The profession of mannequins in the era of art deco was “talking”. They had to tell their clients about the models presented, the features of the fabric, cut or trim in several foreign languages. Therefore, Russian noblewomen, who knew 2-3 languages since childhood, were very appreciated.
Countess Grabbe, nee Princess Beloselskaya-Belozerskaya.
The shock of the French from the appearance in the world of fashion of Russian aristocrats can be understood. Profession & quot; dummy & quot; (as these girls were called) was not prestigious and somewhat questionable. And, by the way, low-paid. Atelier kept “house dummies”, the figure of which was suitable for permanent fittings. For hours they stood idly on the tables, while they were leveled with hem, draped and stuck on them with muslins, tulles and crepe-marks.
Another category were salon mannequins, cadette du cabine. These were the staff units in the fashion house, which demonstrated the models created by the house. Large fashion houses allowed themselves 6-8 “cabin” models, small ones were by 2-3 girls. Houses of fashion gave them a pair of silk stockings and golden brocade shoes, suitable for all models. Above the girls was the headmistress – the chief of the cabin, who was watching the late arrivals, the figure and the behavior of the girls, and most importantly, “# 8212; the fulfillment of the two most important prohibitions: drinking coffee / smoking in model dresses and flirting with the husbands of clients.
The raised language / podium did not exist then, the girls walked among the visitors, so the average growth of the models in those years was 160 cm; fashion on high came only in the late twentieth century.
The shows were held in the living room of each house. Every day there were 3 shows and a certain hour, for example, at 11.00, 14.00 and 17.00. Ladies from among the possible clients and customers came to their favorite fashion house to watch the novelties of the season.
A separate small category consisted of “secular mannequins”, in dresses of a fashion house visited balls, evenings, cocktails, where they were photographed.
Russian fashion models and Russian masters have become an inseparable part of high fashion.
First handicraft products of Russian emigrants were sold through exhibitions and sales, which were organized by Western charitable foundations. Later, active people from among emigrants engaged in marketing. About the fashion for Russian products in Paris early 20-ies enthusiastically wrote a columnist magazine “Art and Fashion”; Pierre de Treviere: “In Paris there are not only Russian restaurants. In addition to taxi drivers and dance teachers who assure us that they were royal adjutants, we have something else … all these Russian materials and ornaments created with rare art, with their attractive multicolored artisans, who by strange coincidence have settled all over the rue Faubourg Saint -Onore, from Piazza Bovo to Ryu Royal … I fervently believe that our fashion will fall under the direct influence of these naive artists. Do not doubt, the tunics of Parisians will soon be illuminated by the Slavic spirit or Russian mood. ”
(Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, founder of the famous embroidery house “Kitmir”. Atelier, she named the name of the beloved Pekingese former Russian Ambassador to the US Bakhmetiev.)
With the introduction of the Nansen Passport & # 8212; recognized in 38 states of the document of political refugee & # 8212; Russian emigrants were given the opportunity to open their own enterprises. Numerous ateliers and sewing workshops of Russian emigrant women, who worked in the Russian style, were called “Uvruars” (artels).
(Prince Obolenskaya, Prince Trubetskaya and Annenkova in the fashion house “TAO”, Paris, 1926. TAO, the first letters of the surnames of the creators of the enterprise)
Fashion for the Russian style spread with the speed of forest fire. Boots, Cossack blouses with oblique clasp, hats, embroideries, headdresses-kokoshniki, a large stand-up collar, called “boyar” & # 8212; were hits of the 20s; kicks of Coco Chanel collections.
They worked not unbending, and not just for food.
In 1925 at the Exhibition in Paris the products were brought and the Soviets. “I found out,” wrote Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, creator of the fashion house “Kitmir”, born Romanova, “that Soviet Russians will have a separate pavilion at the exhibition, and decided that we, too, must show our work to the general public. It would be fair for everyone to know what we, refugees, who in most cases have never worked before, are capable of in our exile. ”
I must say, then she took all her pride: the Soviet delegation brought not only printed cotton calico with hammer and sickles, but also Lamanova’s dresses with buttons of bread crumb, which they received the Grand Prix.
Yes, the work of the Grand Duchess did not go unnoticed, “Kitmir” received a gold medal and an honorary diploma of the exhibition participant. Offended in the name of Monsieur Kitmir.
You can not list all: the legislator, the House “Iteb”, created by the lady-in-waiting of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna Beti (the name of the House is her name on the contrary) Buzzard, born Baroness Elizabeth Goiningen-Gune, in the first marriage of Baroness Wrangel; refined & quot; Elmis & quot; kabardinka Elmishkhan Khagondokova, later the book. Bazhenova, luxurious & quot; Kitmir & quot; vel.k. Romanova and of course, of course, “IrFe”
So what is next ? further was the Great Depression.
The Yusupovs had many clients in the US, and there was also a significant part of their savings. They lost both rich clientele and their money.
In addition, the luxurious aristocratic style of “IrFe” ceased to correspond to the developing society. On the foreground came simple universal models of Chanel, and then Dior.
In 1929, the adored grandmother of Princess Irina, the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, died; at an open auction in Berlin, the Soviet government sold the personal belongings of the Yusupovs who remained in Russia.
In 1930, it was announced the closure of the House “IrFe” and branches. Only the legendary fragrances continued to be sold for some time.
The funds were so small that in the end all the Yusupovs were buried in one grave, as they gradually died-the old princess Zinaida Yusupova, Prince Felix and Irina, who survived all of them, who passed away in February 1970.
But we can look at old photographs, from which Russian emigrants wrapped in fur and luxurious fabrics look, and be grateful for what they did. “After all, aristocracy is born from the best wars of antiquity, and antiquity”. times are very recent & quot; (from)
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